Table of Contents Hide
- 1 – Arabica Coffee Beans
- 2 – Robusta Coffee Beans
- 3 – Liberica Beans
- 4 – Excelsa Beans
Do you ever wonder what type of coffee bean you might be drinking? If so, you’ve come to the right page! I will be going over some of the types of coffee beans below. I will be explaining the different blends, flavour profiles, and characteristics of each coffee bean.
There are four main types of coffee beans. All these beans are grown in the Coffee Belt. The Coffee Belt also known as The Bean Belt is located in the tropics of Capricorn and Cancer, positioned horizontally along the equator that covers over 70 countries. This type of climate is perfect for growing coffee plants due to the rich soil, tropical temperatures, dry seasons and plenty of rain. Countries like Costa Rica, India and Peru are ideal for growing coffee beans.
1 – Arabica Coffee Beans
Arabica Beans come from the coffea arabica plant, making up 60% of global coffee production. The Arabica bean is known to be the world’s most popular coffee bean, that originated from the highlands of Ethiopia. Arabica coffee roasts are known to be of the highest quality, packing a low caffeine grade.
What do Arabica coffee beans taste like?
Arabica coffee beans are slightly sweet and have hints of fruit, chocolate, caramel and nuts. They can be slightly acidic and a bit bitter.
The flavour all depends on the roast of the coffee and the soil of where the beans were grown. Most importantly, coffee beans should be stored properly so that they can maintain their freshness and taste.
How is Arabica coffee grown?
The Arabica coffee plant likes to grow in humidity and shade, with temperatures between 16-24 Celsius (60-75 Fahrenheit). The plants are grown above sea level at around 1,900 feet (600m) and take seven years to mature. In the wild, they tend to grow 9-12 meters. While commercial growth is a bit more tamed, with their lengths cut at 5 meters tall. Keeping them short helps with the harvesting process.
Where is Arabica coffee grown?
Arabica trees love tropical climates, so they are grown around the equator. The best coffee is grown in South America and Africa.
The highest quality of Arabica coffee beans are from:
- Costa Rica
2 – Robusta Coffee Beans
Robusta coffee beans come from the coffea canephora plant, making up 30% of global coffee production, coming in at second place for being the world’s most popular coffee bean. It originated in sub-Saharan Africa and is mainly grown in Africa and Indonesia.
What do Robusta coffee beans taste like?
Robusta coffee beans have an earthy and bitter taste, being a lot harsher due to the roasting effects on the coffee bean. Robusta also has an increase in caffeine, which makes it excellent for espresso coffee blends.
How is Robusta coffee grown?
The Robusta coffee plant is very tough and can withstand hot environments with temperatures over 30 celsius (86 Fahrenheit), although it does require plenty of water to stay hydrated and remain productive. The Robusta coffee plant also has double the caffeine as the Arabica coffee plant, making it less receptive to pests and diseases.
Where is Robusta coffee grown?
Robusta coffee beans are grown in the Eastern Hemisphere, growing primarily in Indonesia and Africa.
3 – Liberica Beans
Liberica coffee beans come from the Coffea liberica plant, making up 2% of global coffee production. Liberica berries are a lot larger than Arabica and Robusta species. The Liberica tree grows up to 18 meters and can also withstand harsh climates like it’s friend the Robusta coffee bean.
What do Liberica coffee beans taste like?
The Liberica coffee bean is known to have a woody and metallic taste that is a tad bitter with hints of floral and fruity aroma.
Where is Liberica coffee grown?
Liberica is primarily grown in Malaysia and West Africa. The coffee bean produces a very distinct aroma and flavour property, which makes it very unpopular and not internationally grown.
4 – Excelsa Beans
This coffee bean is a little bit tricky because until 2006 it was considered as an independent coffee type, but now it has been re-classified as a Liberica type bean. The Excelsa coffee bean makes up 7% of global coffee production. Excelsa has the same tree characteristics and similarities as Liberica. This coffee bean is usually used in combination with other beans to add extra flavour. Excelsa’s taste profile is unusual and slightly mysterious, having the flavour of a light roast and dark roast combined.
Now that you know the four main types of coffee beans, choosing your favorite coffee bean won’t be too hard! Be sure to learn about the types of coffee roasts so you can familiarize yourself with the roasting process of your favorite bean.